History Of Zambia
Zambia is a landlocked country in South Central Africa, surrounded by Namibia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Angola, Zimbabwe and Tanzania. It’s a tenth the size of Texas. Zambia is located in South Africa and bordered by the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Namibia and South Africa.
The long border with the Democratic Republic of Congo begins at Lake Tanganyika and crosses Lake Mweru and follows the Luapula River to a stalk (a wedge of Congolese territory) that cuts through Zambia, giving the country its distinctive butterfly shape. From the pedicle the border follows the Zambezi and the Congo to the Angolan border.
In the 19th century, a protracted war existed between the Barotse tribe of Barotseland, now known as the Western Province of Zambia, and lesser-known Lozi and Kololo, the invasions of the south.
In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the new invaders from the south, the Zambezi under Cecil Rhodes, were the driving force behind the British colonial expansion in Africa. It was their lord Levanika who negotiated with them in 1890. He was impressed by the way that his neighbour Bechuanaland had gained British protection and wanted to do the same for himself and the new invaders, and this was part of a long-held ambition.
In 1911, the two parts of Northern Rhodesia were merged, and the entire region is now 1,500% European. In 1924, the British South Africa Company gave the administration of the region to the British government, but was allowed to retain land rights in the region. At the beginning of the 1950s, there were still 40,000, mainly dealing with copper.
It is located on a plateau in southern Central Africa and took its name from the Zambezi River that drains a small northern part of the country. Much of the population is concentrated in the most developed area of the country, the so-called railway line, which serves as a rail link between the Copper Belt and the capital Lusaka and the border city of Livingstone.
The Great Rift Valley which divides the earth between the lower Zambezi River in southern Zambia and the upper Nile Valley in Egypt is known as one of the cradles of humanity. Zambia’s current population has lived for countless eons on land inhabited by our ancestors. Archaeologists have found that a process of civilization began in the North African Rift Valley at least 3 million years ago, and in Kenya, raw stone tools of a similar age have been found along the Zambezi River. In many parts of Zambia, early Stone Age sites have been found, the most notable being Kalambo Falls in the north and Victoria Falls in the south.
Iron processing and agriculture were practiced in parts of Zambia as early as 100 AD. Shakas of the Zulu Empire of South Africa set a series of migratory movements known as Mfecane in which groups of people including Ngoni were forced to migrate as Zambezi to the north to avoid Shaka’s incursions and conquests. The history of the country since the 19th century has been explored through archaeology and oral tradition.
From about 1000 AD, Arab slave traders from their city states on the east coast of Africa invaded the region. Other invasions came in the form of merchants from the north, especially the Nyamwezi, Arabs, and Swahili, who were lured to Zambia by long-distance trading systems. In the 14th and 16th centuries, a Bantu-speaking group, the Maravi, emigrated from what is now Congo-Zaire and founded a kingdom in the east and southeast of Zambia.
Driven out of Zimbabwe, the Makalolo moved into southern Zambia and advanced to Tonga to secure the Lozi territory on the upper Zambezi River. Around 1200, after the founding of the states of Luba and Lunda, a group of Bantu people migrated from Lake Mweru into the Congo Basin and settled around Lake Malawi. They are believed to be residents of the Upemba area of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Indigenous hunters and gatherers in present-day Zambia began to be driven out and absorbed by more advanced migratory tribes about 2,000 years ago. In the 15th century, large waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants began with larger inflows in the late 17th and early 19th centuries. In the 19th century there was an additional influx of ngoni people from the south to escape the Mfecans.
More than 100 years before David Livingstone established foot in Zambia in southwest, his famous expedition led to the discovery of Victoria Falls by Europeans and the founding of two cities – Victoria Falls and Livingstone. There, members of the British South Africa (BSA) discovered copper deposits in the Kafue area. According to the report by David Livingstones, interest in the region grew, and settlers came as far away as Cape Town, South Africa, to the BSA in search of mineral resources and trade.
The discovery and development of rich underground ore bodies in the Zambian copper belt in the late 1920s and 1930s made it one of the most concentrated and well-known mining areas in the world.
In 1890, Cecil Rhodes and the British South Africa Company executed a treaty with several African leaders, including King Lewanika Lozi, and administered what is now Zambia. In 1911, the territory was divided into the protectorates of Northwest Rhodesia and Northeast Rhodesia, which united to form Northern Rhodesia. Southern Rhodesia was annexed in 1923 and became self-governing. Administration of the Northern Rhodesia Protectorate was transferred to the British Colonial Office as protectorate in 1924.
At the heart of the controversy were strong African demands for greater government participation and European fears of losing political control. The 1962 elections led to an African majority in the Council and finally to the dissolution of the Federation in 1963.
David Livingstone explored the region around Lake Bangweulu from 1851 until his death in 1873. Francois Coillard, a French Protestant missionary, settled in Barotseland in what is now Western Province in 1884. In 1890 the Cecil Rhodes British South Africa Company established itself in the South East, extended its charter to land of Zambezi.